Connecticut () is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Portions of southwestern Connecticut are also considered part of the New York metropolitan area. Connecticut is the 29th most populous state with 3.4 million residents and ranked 48th in size by area, making it the 4th most densely populated state.
The southwestern border of Connecticut, where it abuts New York State, is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, Stamford, New Canaan and Darien. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 1600s, culminating with New York giving up its claim to the area, whose residents considered themselves part of Connecticut, in exchange for an equivalent area extending northwards from Ridgefield, Connecticut to the Massachusetts border as well as undisputed claim to Rye, New York.
Areas maintained by the National Park Service include: Appalachian National Scenic Trail; Quinebaug & Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor; and Weir Farm National Historic Site.
Connecticut has a Humid Continental Climate, with seasonal extremes tempered by its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. Winters are cold, with average temperatures ranging from 31 °F (-1 °C) in the southeast to 23 °F (-5 °C) in the northwest in January. The average yearly snowfall is about 25–100" (64–254 cm) across the state, with higher totals in the northwest. Spring has variable temperatures with frequent rainfall. Summer is hot and humid throughout the state, with average highs in New London of 81 °F (27 °C) and 87 °F (31 °C) in Windsor Locks. Fall months are mild, and bring foliage across the state in October and November. During hurricane season, tropical cyclones occasionally affect the region. Thunderstorms are most frequent during the summer, occurring on average 30 times annually. These storms can be severe, though tornadoes are rare.
|Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Connecticut Cities|
The name "Connecticut" originates from the Mohegan word quinnitukqut, meaning "place of long tidal river." In fact, the exact spelling "connect I cut", was rendered by Whalley, Goffe, and Dixwell, the three "Regicide Judges" who came to New Haven in the 17th century, fleeing persecution by Charles II of England. The first European explorer in Connecticut was the Dutch explorer Adriaen Block. After he explored this region in 1614, Dutch fur traders sailed up the Connecticut River (Named Versche Rivier - " Fresh River" - by the Dutch) and built a fort at Dutch Point near present-day Hartford, which they called "House of Hope" (Dutch: Huis van Hoop).
John Winthrop, then of Massachusetts, got permission to create a new colony at Old Saybrook at the mouth of the Connecticut River in 1635. This was the first of three distinct colonies that later would be combined to make up Connecticut. Saybrook Colony was a direct challenge to Dutch claims. The colony was not more than a small outpost and never matured. In 1644, the Saybrook Colony merged itself into the Connecticut Colony.
The first English settlers came in 1633 and settled at Windsor and then Wethersfield in 1634. However, the main body of settlers came in one large group in 1636. The settlers were Puritans from Massachusetts, led by Thomas Hooker. Hooker had been prominent in England, and was a professor of theology at Cambridge. He was also an important political writer, and made a significant contribution to Constitutional theory. He broke with the political leadership in Massachusetts, and, just as Roger Williams created a new polity in Rhode Island, Hooker and his cohort did the same and established the Connecticut Colony at Hartford in 1636. This was the second of the three colonies.
The third colony was founded in March of 1638. New Haven Colony, (originally known as the Quinnipiack Colony), was established by John Davenport, Theophilus Eaton and others at New Haven. The New Haven Colony had its own Constitution, 'The Fundamental Agreement of the New Haven Colony' which was signed on 4 June 1639.
Because the Dutch were outnumbered by the flood of English settlers from Massachusetts, they left their fort in 1654.
Neither the establishment of the Connecticut Colony or the Quinnipiack Colony were done with the sanction of British imperial authorities, and were independent political entities. They naturally were presumptively English, but in a legal sense, they were only secessionist outposts of Massachusetts Bay. In 1662, Winthrop took advantage of this void in political affairs, and obtained in England the charter by which the colonies of Connecticut and Quinnipiack were united. Although Winthrop's charter favored the Connecticut colony, New Haven remained a seat of government with Hartford, until after the American Revolution.
Winthrop was very politically astute, and secured the charter from the newly restored Charles II; who granted the most liberal political terms.
Historically important colonial settlements included:
- Windsor (1633),
- Wethersfield (1634),
- Saybrook (1635),
- Hartford (1636),
- New Haven (1638),
- Fairfield (1639),
- Stratford (1639),
- Stamford (1640),
- New London (1646),
- Middletown (1647)
Its first constitution, the "Fundamental Orders," was adopted on January 14, 1639, while its current constitution, the third for Connecticut, was adopted in 1965. Connecticut is the fifth of the original thirteen states. The original constitutions influenced the US Constitution as one of the leading authors was Roger Sherman of New Haven.
The western boundaries of Connecticut have been subject to change over time. According to The Hartford Treaty with the Dutch, signed on 1650-09-19, but never ratified by the British, the western boundary of Connecticut ran north from Greenwich Bay for a distance of 20 Miles "provided the said line come not within [16 km] of Hudson River. This agreement was observed by both sides until war erupted between England and The Netherlands in 1652. No other limits were specified. Conflict over uncertain colonial limits continued until the Duke of York captured New Netherland in 1664. Most colonial royal grants were for long east-west strips. Connecticut took its grant seriously, and established a ninth county between the Susquehanna and Delaware Rivers, named Westmoreland County. This resulted in the brief Pennamite Wars with Pennsylvania.
Connecticut's lands also extended across northern Ohio, called the Western Reserve lands. The Western Reserve section was settled largely by people from Connecticut, and they brought Connecticut place names to Ohio. Agreements with Pennsylvania and New York extinguished the land claims by Connecticut within its neighbors, and the Western Reserve lands were relinquished to the federal government, which brought the state to its present boundaries.
Names and symbolsEdit
Connecticut's official nickname, adopted in 1959, is "The Constitution State," based on its colonial constitution of 1638–39. Unofficially (but popularly) Connecticut is also known as "The Nutmeg State". Linguist Allen Walker Read reports a more playful term, 'connecticutie.' The traditional abbreviation of the state's name is "Conn."; the official postal abbreviation is CT.
Commemorative stamps issued by the United States Postal Service with Connecticut themes include Nathan Hale, Eugene O'Neill, Josiah Willard Gibbs, Noah Webster, Eli Whitney, the whaling ship the Charles W. Morgan which is docked in Mystic Seaport, and a decoy of a broadbill duck.
|State poet laureate||John Hollander|
|Connecticut State Troubadour||Pierce Campbell|
|State composer laureate||Jacob Druckman|
As of 2005, Connecticut has an estimated population of 3,510,297, which is an increase of 11,331, or 0.3%, from the prior year and an increase of 104,695, or 3.1%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 67,427 people (that is 222,222 births minus 154,795 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 41,718 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 75,991 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 34,273 people. Based on the 2005 estimates, Connecticut moves from the 29th most populous state to 30th.
Race, ancestry, and language Edit
As of 2004, 11.4% of the population (400,000) was foreign-born, and 10% of the foreign-born in the state were illegal aliens (about 1.1% of the population). In 1870, native-born Americans had accounted for 75% of the state's population, but that had dropped to 35% by 1918.
Connecticut has large Italian American and Irish American populations, as well as German American and Portuguese American populations, second highest percentage of any state behind Rhode Island (19.3%). Italian is the largest ancestry group in five of the state's counties, while the Irish are the largest group in Tolland county, French Canadians the largest group in Windham county, and old stock New England Yankees are present throughout. African Americans and Hispanics (mostly Puerto Ricans) are numerous in the urban areas of the state. Like Ohio and New York, Connecticut is also known for its relatively large Hungarian American population, the majority of which live in and around Fairfield, Stamford, Naugatuck and Bridgeport. Connecticut also has a sizable Polish American population, with New Britain containing the largest Polish American population in the state.
A 2001 survey of Connecticut residents' religious self-identification showed the following distribution of affiliations:
- Roman Catholic – 32%
- Baptist – 10%
- Episcopal – 6%
- Methodist – 4%
- Lutheran – 4%
- Congregational/United Church of Christ – 2%
- Presbyterian – 1%
- Pentecostal – 1%
- Other Protestant or general Protestant – 4%
- Latter-Day Saint – 2%
- Church of Christ – 2%
- Assembly of God – 1%
- Non-denominational – 1%
- Other Christian – 7%
- Jewish – 1%
- Muslim – 1%
- Other Religions – 4%
- Non-Religious – 12%
- No answer – 6%
There is a significant Jewish population in the state, concentrated in the towns near Long Island Sound between Greenwich and New Haven, in Greater New Haven and in Greater Hartford, especially the suburb of West Hartford.
Recent immigration has brought other non-Christian religions to the state, but the numbers of adherents of other religions are still low.
The total gross state product for 2006 was $204 billion. The per capita income for 2007 was $54,117, ranking first among the states. There is, however, a great disparity in incomes through the state; although New Canaan has one of the highest per capita incomes in America, Hartford is one of the ten cities with the lowest per capita incomes in America (The low number may partially be due to the fact that the city, like other cities in the area, has a small footprint relative to a typical American city--only about 18 square miles--and therefore does not have more middle-income areas included in its total to "balance out", statistically, inner areas with older housing stock and a poorer population). Should Hartford (or similar cities New Haven and Bridgeport) be combined with its immediate suburbs, it would rank as one of the richest cities in the country. Fairfield County has become a bedroom community for higher-paid New York City workers seeking a less urban lifestyle. This in turn has attracted businesses wishing to remain near New York City to southwestern Connecticut, most notably to Stamford.
New Canaan is the wealthiest town in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $85,459. Darien, Greenwich, Weston, Westport and Wilton also have per capita incomes over $65,000. Hartford is the poorest city in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $13,428 (although see above). There are other lower-income and blue-collar towns, mostly parts of towns, in the eastern part of the State. Poor and medium wealth households are particularly affected by a very high cost of living, due to a combination of expensive real estate, expensive heating for the winters, and other factors.
Prior to 1991, Connecticut had a highly populist income tax system. Income from employment was untaxed, but income from investments was taxed at the highest rate in the United States: 13%. And this burden was further increased by the method of calculation: no deductions were allowed for the cost (for example, interest on borrowing) of producing the investment income. Under Governor Lowell P. Weicker, Jr., an Independent, this was reformed to the present system.
This system prior to 1991 made it an attractive haven for high-salaried earners fleeing the heavy taxes of New York State, but highly unattractive for members of Wall Street partnerships. It put an enormous burden on Connecticut property tax payers, particularly in the cities with their more extensive municipal services. As a result, the middle class largely fled the urban areas for the suburbs, taking stores and other tax-paying businesses with them, leaving mostly the urban poor in the older, central areas of Connecticut cities.
With Weicker's 1991 tax reform, the tax on employment and investment income was equalized at a then-maximum of 4%. Since then, Greenwich, Connecticut, has become the headquarters of choice for a large number of America's largest hedge funds, and Connecticut income from that industry has soared. Today the income tax rate on Connecticut individuals is divided into two tax brackets of 3% and 5%. All wages of a Connecticut resident are subject to the state's income tax, even when the resident works outside of the state. However, in those cases, Connecticut income tax must be withheld only to the extent the Connecticut tax exceeds the amount withheld by the other jurisdiction. Since New York state has higher tax rates than Connecticut, this effectively means that Connecticut residents that work in New York state pay no income tax to Connecticut.
Connecticut levies a 6% state sales tax on the retail sale, lease, or rental of most goods. Some items and services in general are not subject to sales and use taxes unless specifically enumerated as taxable by statute. There are no additional sales taxes imposed by local jurisdictions. During the summer there is one week of duty free buying to spur retail sales.
All real and personal property located within the state of Connecticut is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. All assessments are at 70% of fair market value. Another 20% of the value may be taxed by the local government though. The maximum property tax credit is $500 per return and any excess may not be refunded or carried forward.
The agricultural output for the state is nursery stock, eggs clams and lobster, dairy products, cattle, and tobacco. Its industrial outputs are transportation equipment (especially helicopters, aircraft parts, and nuclear submarines), heavy industrial machinery and electrical equipment, military weaponry and fabricated metal products, chemical and pharmaceutical products, and scientific instruments.
Due to the prominence of the aircraft industry in the state, Connecticut has an official state aircraft, the F4U Corsair, and an official Connecticut Aviation Pioneer, Igor Sikorsky. The state officially recognizes aircraft designer Gustav Whitehead as "Father of Connecticut Aviation" for his research into powered flight in Bridgeport, Connecticut in 1901, two years before the Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Governor John Dempsey also declared August 15 to be "Gustave Whitehead Day."
A report issued by the Connecticut Commission on Culture & Tourism on December 72006 demonstrated that the economic impact of the arts, film, history and tourism generated more than $14 billion in economic activity and 170,000 jobs annually. This provides $9 billion in personal income for Connecticut residents and $1.7 billion in state and local revenue.
Glaciers carved valleys in Connecticut running north to south; as a result, many more roadways in the state run north to south than do east to west, mimicking the previous use of the many north-south rivers as transportation. The Interstate highways in the state are I-95 (the Connecticut Turnpike) running southwest to northeast along the coast, I-84 running southwest to northeast in the center of the state, I-91 running north to south in the center of the state, and I-395 running north to south near the eastern border of the state. The other major highways in Connecticut are the Merritt Parkway and Wilbur Cross Parkway, which together form State Route 15, running from the Hutchinson River Parkway in New York State parallel to I-95 before turning north of New Haven and running parallel to I-91, finally becoming a surface road in Berlin, Connecticut. Route 15 and I-95 were originally toll roads; they relied on a system of toll plazas at which all traffic stopped and paid fixed tolls. A series of terrible crashes at these plazas eventually contributed to the decision to remove the tolls in 1988. Other major arteries in the state include U.S. Route 7 in the west running parallel to the NY border, State Route 8 farther east near the industrial city of Waterbury and running north-south along the Naugatuck River Valley nearly parallel with U.S. 7, and State Route 9 in the east. See List of State Routes in Connecticut for an overview of the state's highway system.
Between New Haven and the New York City, I-95 is one of the most congested highways in the United States. Many people now drive longer distances to work in the New York City area. This strains the three lanes of traffic capacity, resulting in lengthy rush hour delays. Frequently, the congestion spills over to clog the parallel Merritt Parkway. The state has encouraged traffic reduction schemes, including rail use and ride-sharing.
Connecticut also has a very active bicycling community, with one of the highest rates of bicycling ownership and use in the United States. New Haven's cycling community, organized in a local advocacy group called ElmCityCycling, is particularly active. According to the U.S. Census 2006 American Community Survey, New Haven has the highest percentage of commuters who bicycle to work of any major metropolitan center on the East Coast.
Since many Connecticut residents commute to New York City, there is an extensive commuter railway network connecting New York City to New Haven on Metro North Railroad (a commuter railroad based in New York and operated by the Metropolitan Transit Authority) with spurs servicing Waterbury, Danbury, and New Canaan. Rail service does not end with New Haven, however. Connecticut is in the heart of Amtrak's Northeast Corridor and the Amtrak Regional line makes stops in New Haven-State Street, Old Saybrook, New London, and Mystic. Smaller town stops between New Haven and New London are served by Shore Line East, which takes commuters to those stations to catch a main train. These commuter services are heavily utilized during weekday rush hours. Regional rail service is provided by Amtrak, which makes regular stops in Stamford, Bridgeport, New Haven, and Hartford, as well as in Wallingford, Meriden, Berlin, Windsor, and Windsor Locks. Operation of commuter trains from New Haven to Springfield on Amtrak's New Haven-Springfield Line is scheduled to begin in 2010.
Statewide bus service is supplied by Connecticut Transit, owned by the Connecticut Department of Transportation, with smaller municipal authorities providing local service. Bus networks are an important part of the transportation system in Connecticut, especially in urban areas like Hartford, Stamford, Norwalk, Bridgeport and New Haven. A three-year construction project to build a busway from New Britain to Hartford will begin in August 2009.
Bradley International Airport, which became truly 'International' in the summer of 2007 beginning service to Europe, is located in Windsor Locks, 15 miles (24 km) north of Hartford. Regional air service is provided at Tweed-New Haven Airport. Larger civil airports include Danbury Municipal Airport and Waterbury-Oxford Airport in western Connecticut. The Westchester County Airport in Harrison, New York serves part of southwestern Connecticut.
Law and government Edit
Hartford has been the sole capital of Connecticut since 1875. Before then, New Haven and Hartford alternated as capitals. The Appellate Court is a lesser state-wide court and the Superior Courts are lower courts that resemble county courts of other states.
and several lists: List of municipalities of Connecticut by population, List of towns in Connecticut, List of cities in Connecticut, Borough (Connecticut), List of counties in Connecticut
Unlike most other states, Connecticut does not have county government. Connecticut county governments were mostly eliminated in 1960, with the exception of the sheriff system. In 2000, the county sheriff was abolished and replaced with the state marshal system, which has districts that follow the old county territories. The judicial system is divided, at the trial court level, into judicial districts which largely follow the old county lines. The eight counties are still widely used for purely geographical and statistical purposes, such as weather reports, and census reporting.
The state is divided into 15 planning regions defined by the state Office of Planning and Management. The Intragovernmental Policy Division of this Office coordinates regional planning with the administrative bodies of these regions. Each region has an administrative body known as either a regional council of governments, a regional council of elected officials, or a regional planning agency. The regions are established for the purpose of planning "coordination of regional and state planning activities; designation or redesignation of logical planning regions and promotion of the continuation of regional planning organizations within the state; and provision for technical aid and the administration of financial assistance to regional planning organizations."
Many Connecticut towns show a marked preference for moderate candidates of either party. Democrats hold a registration edge especially in the cities of Hartford; New Haven; and Bridgeport, where Democratic machines have held power since the great immigration waves of the 1800s. The state's Republican-leaning areas are the rural Litchfield County and adjoining towns in the west of Hartford County, the industrial towns of the Naugatuck River Valley, and some of the affluent Fairfield County towns near the New York border. The suburban towns of New Canaan and Darien in Fairfield County are considered the most Republican areas in the state, the former being the hometown of conservative activist Ann Coulter. Westport, a wealthy town a few miles to the east, is often considered one of the most loyally-Democratic, liberal towns in Fairfield County. Norwalk and Stamford, two larger, affluent communities in Fairfield County, have in many elections favored moderate Republicans including former Governor John G. Rowland and Congressman Chris Shays, however they have favored Democrats in recent US presidential candidates. Waterbury has a Democratic registration edge, but usually favors conservative candidates in both parties. In Danbury unaffiliated voters outnumber voters registered with either major party. Other smaller cities including Meriden, New Britain, and Middletown favor Democratic candidates.
Democrats hold veto-proof majorities in both houses of the Connecticut General Assembly. In 2006, Republicans were reduced from three out of five to one out of five federal congressional seats. The remaining Republican, Chris Shays, is the only Republican from New England in the U.S. House of Representatives in the current Congress and is also one of the most liberal Republicans in the House. Christopher Dodd and Joseph Lieberman are Connecticut's U.S. senators. The senior Dodd is a Democrat while the junior Lieberman serves as an Independent Democrat caucusing with Senate Democrats after his victory on the Connecticut for Lieberman ballot line in the 2006 general election. Lieberman's predecessor, Lowell P. Weicker, Jr., was the last Connecticut Republican to serve as Senator. Weicker was known as a liberal Republican. He broke with President Richard Nixon during Watergate and successfully ran for governor in 1990 as an independent, creating A Connecticut Party as his election vehicle. Before Weicker, the last Republican to represent Connecticut in the Senate was Prescott Bush, the father of former President George H.W. Bush and the grandfather of President George W. Bush. He served from 1953–1963.
Several mayors, state legislators, and government employees have been convicted and imprisoned for crimes ranging from bribery to racketeering. In 2004, Governor John G. Rowland, a Republican, was forced to resign when it was discovered he helped steer state contracts to firms that offered him gifts and free vacations. Following his resignation, he pled guilty to corruption charges and served ten months in federal prison. Former Waterbury Mayor and 2000 GOP Senate candidate Philip Giordano was stripped of power in 2001 after a corruption investigation had to be cut short when phone taps unexpectedly revealed alleged sexual acts with 8- and 10-year-old minor girls and other possible child sex offenses. In 2003, he was convicted and sentenced to 37 years in federal prison. Democrats have been convicted of corruption as well, most notably former Bridgeport Mayor Joe Ganim. The current Mayor of Bridgeport, John Fabrizi admitted to using cocaine while in office, but has stayed on while not running for re-election. In August 2007 Hartford Mayor Eddie Perez announced he had been investigated for ties to a city contractor.  And in December 2007 in Enfield, former Mayor Patrick L. Tallarita (D) has been named in a lawsuit over an alleged threatening confrontation with a man at a grocery store.
Several state agencies, including the Department of Transportation (DOT), Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV), and Department of Children and Families (DCF) have been rocked by scandals over the past decade.
A more recent scandal involved a botched construction project on Interstate 84 near Waterbury. An independent audit of the project in late 2006 revealed that over 300 storm drains installed by the now-defunct L.G. DeFelice Construction Company, were either filled with sand, were improperly installed, or were connected with pipes that led to nowhere. In addition to the faulty storm drains, officials discovered light fixtures with defective mounting brackets when one of the fixtures fell off of its support pole and onto the highway. Inspectors also discovered the structural steel for an overpass was not properly installed, raising serious questions about the bridge's structural integrity. Following the uncovering of this scandal, Attorney-General Richard Blumenthal filed suit against L.G. DeFelice, its bonding company USF&G, and the consultants (the Maguire Group) hired by CONNDOT to oversee the project, resulting in a $17.5 million settlement to fix the problems. A federal grand jury and FBI investigation were also launched into the operations of L.G. DeFelice before the company ceased operations in 2004. Several CONNDOT employees were fired after being implicated in the scandal, and are also subjects of state and federal investigations for allegedly taking bribes in exchange for covering up substandard work on the I-84 project. Finally, the scandal prompted the Connecticut General Assembly to consider contract reform legislation and Governor M. Jodi Rell to order a complete reorganization of CONNDOT.
On June 12007 Connecticut Senate Minority Leader Louis DeLuca (R-Woodbury) was arrested on conspiracy charges after it was discovered he was dealing with a local Mafia boss who is currently facing federal charges stemming from his trash-hauling operations, and allegations that he tried to use these same ties to intimidate the husband of his granddaughter, whom he claimed was abusing her.
Following Rowland's resignation, the state legislature passed a campaign finance reform bill that bans contributions from lobbyists and state contractors in future campaigns.
Connecticut is well-known as the home of Yale University, which maintains a consistent ranking as one of the world's most renowned universities, and has one of the most selective undergraduate programs of any university in the United States (an 8.6% acceptance rate in 2006). Yale is one of the largest employers in the state, and its research activity has recently spun off dozens of growing biotechnology companies.
Connecticut is also the host of many other academic institutions, including Sacred Heart University (1964),Quinnipiac University (1929), Trinity College (1823) and Wesleyan University (1832). The University of Connecticut has been the highest ranked public university in New England for eight years running, according to U.S. News and World Report.
Additionally, the State has many noted boarding schools, including Miss Porter's School, Choate Rosemary Hall, Hotchkiss, Westminster School, Pomfret School, Avon Old Farms, Loomis Chaffee, Salisbury School and The Taft School which draw students from all over the world. Also Connecticut has many noted private day schools such as Holy Cross High School located in Waterbury, Kingswood-Oxford School located in West Hartford, the Hopkins School in New Haven, St. Lukes School in New Canaan and the Williams School in New London.
for a comprehensive listing.
- From 1979 to 1997, the National Hockey League had a franchise in Hartford, the Hartford Whalers. Their departure to Raleigh, North Carolina, caused great controversy and resentment. The former Whalers are now known as the Carolina Hurricanes.
- Connecticut is a battleground between fans of the New York Yankees, Boston Red Sox, and New York Mets
- From 1975 to 1995, the Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association played a number of home games at the Hartford Civic Center.
- Since 1952, a PGA Tour golf tournament has been played in the Hartford area. Originally called the "Insurance City Open" and later the "Greater Hartford Open," the event is now know as the Travelers Championship.
The Pilot Pen Tennis Tournament is held annually at the Connecticut Tennis Center at Yale University. It is one of the few dual-sex tournaments in professional tennis and is the warm-up tournament to the US Open, played the following week in Queens, New York. The court speed and weather conditions are identical to those at the US Open.
The Connecticut Interscholastic Athletic Conference (CIAC) is the state's sanctioning body for high school sports. Xavier High School (Middletown, CT) claimed the 2005 Class LL football championship. Other state champions in football include Staples (in Westport), Greenwich High School (Greenwich, CT) 2006 state LL champions, Branford, Daniel Hand (in Madison), Woodland Regional (in Beacon Falls), East Lyme High School (in East Lyme), Hyde Leadership (in Hamden), Southington High School (in Southington).
George Walker Bush, President of the United States, was born in Connecticut. He is a member of the Bush political family, with roots in the state extending three generations. Other notable figures from the state span American political and cultural history, including Ralph Nader, Eli Whitney, Benedict Arnold, Nathan Hale, Harriet Beecher Stowe, John Brown, Eugene O'Neill, Charles Ives, Katharine Hepburn, and Roger Sherman. The state is often associated with American author Mark Twain, who resided there for a short period of time, although he felt more of a connection to his native Missouri, as demonstrated by his frequent mention of Missouri in his writing.
- Connecticut census statistical areas
- Connecticut State Police
- Connecticut State Troubadour
- List of television shows set in Connecticut
- Scouting in Connecticut
- State of Connecticut - Official state website
- Connecticut State Databases - Annotated list of searchable databases produced by Connecticut state agencies and compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association.
- Connecticut State Register & Manual - updated annually
- Directory of Web sites of Connecticut towns and cities
- CTVisit.com - Official state tourism website
- Connecticut Society of Genealogists (Est. 1968)
- Connecticut Historical Society
- USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Connecticut
- U.S. Census Bureau
- Connecticut State Facts
- History topics timeline of Connecticut 1738-1838
Civic and business organizationsEdit
- Connecticut Junior Chamber (Jaycees)
- Connecticut Newspapers
- Connecticut Business & Industry Association
- The Connecticut Business Hall Of Fame